Darwinist corruption in Arab countries

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  • What does “Arab socialism mean”?
  • How did Social Darwinism lead to the formation and spread of Arab socialism?
  • How did this ideology, which led to the deaths of millions of innocent people, infiltrate into Arab countries?
  • What destructive effect did the Darwinist Communist intellectual system have on the Arab people?
  • What does Adnan Oktar have to say on the subject?
  • In what major developments have Adnan Oktar’s Atlas of Creation, which has had a huge global impact, and his other works read by millions of people, been instrumental, by Allah’s leave?

Communists have always been among the most fervid adherents of Social Darwinism. This relationship between Darwinism and communism goes back to the founders of both “isms.” Marx and Engels, the founders of communism, read Darwin’s Origin of Species as soon as it was published and admired the book’s “dialectical materialist” approach. Correspondence between Marx and Engels shows that they both considered Darwin’s theory to be “the foundation of communism in terms of the natural sciences.” Indeed, in his book Dialectics of Nature, written under the influence of Darwin, Engels praised Darwin and tried, in his own eyes, to make a contribution to the theory of evolution in the chapter “The Part Played by Labor in the Transition from Ape to Man.” 

All the Russian communists who followed Marx and Engels' path, such as Plekhanov, Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin, adopted Darwin’s theory of evolution. Plekhanov, regarded as the founder of Russian communism, is famous for regarding Marxism as "Darwinism in its application to social science." 

Trotsky declared that “Darwin's discovery is the highest triumph of the dialectic in the whole field of organic matter.” 2 

“Darwinist education” played a major role in the formation of the communist cadres. It is a fact confirmed by historians, for instance, historians note the fact that Stalin was religious in his youth, but became an atheist because of Darwin's books. 3

Mao, who slaughtered millions of people, openly described the philosophical basis of the order he established as "Chinese socialism is founded upon Darwin and the theory of evolution." 4

In short, there is an insoluble bond between the theory of evolution and communism. The theory of evolution maintains that living things are the work of chance, and it also provided a supposed scientific justification for atheism. That is why communism, a totally atheist ideology, is inescapably bound to Darwinism. The fact that communism, based on Darwinist materialist thinking, slaughtered millions of people in Arab countries alone throughout the 20thcentury, gives one a better idea of the disasters Darwinism has inflicted on the world. 


The State of Muslims in the 20th Century

The last Islamic Union in the world was the great and glorious Ottoman Empire. Since its collapse, the Islamic world has been divided into countries great and small. Most of these were for a long time colonized by Western powers. From the 1920s on, the entire Middle East, North Africa, the Indian sub-continent and the Muslims of the Pacific fell under the rule of European colonialist powers, particularly Britain and France. The Muslims of Central Asia and the Caucasus came under the rule of an even harsher regime, the Soviet Russian dictatorship. The Muslims of the Balkans were ruled by non-Muslim peoples such as the Serbs and Croats. 

In short, a large part of the world’s Muslims were colonized for much of the 20th century. After the World War II, the administrations in these Muslim countries adopted communism and assumed an anti-Islamic identity. Ideological trends diametrically opposed to the values at the heart of Islamic moral values gained strength in some of those Islamic countries that obtained independence in the 1950s. The “Arab Socialism” that had a profound influence on the Arab world in the 1950s and ‘60s is one such example. 


 

The Arab Socialism that Developed in the Arab World in the Wake of the Ottomans

Arab socialism was a movement that combined extreme nationalism with a fanatical third world leftism, and was fundamentally supported by the Soviet Union. Arab socialism combined a slightly milder version of Soviet-style communism with strong Arab nationalism, and first came to power in Egypt. Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the officers who overthrew the Egyptian monarchy and then assumed power, soon revealed a conception of government that oppressed the Muslim public. Syria and Iraq followed on the heels of Egypt. Socialist regimes seized power through bloody coups in all these countries. 

There was no room for concepts such as peace or moderation in Arab socialists’ programs. On the contrary, the concept of conflict that lies at the heart of Marxist ideology was much more important to them. In that climate, tensions in the Arab world grew rapidly. 

As the Islamic Union – the main element that has made the "Pax Ottomana" (“the Ottoman Peace”) in the region possible – was being eliminated, Arab nationalism was stirred up. Arabs were also divided among themselves. Thus it was that following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20thcentury, Muslim Arab peoples living in the Middle East and North Africa were left unprotected. Artificial kingdoms appeared in the Arab world that had previously been bound to the caliphate, in the wake of the caliphate’s elimination. The family of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, who had initiated the “Arab Revolt” against the Ottomans during the First World War I, came to head these kingdoms. During the inter-war period, Muslim lands witnessed the strong presence of colonialist European states. In the meantime, the climate of violence there was elevated in order to establish the state of Israel. Terrorist activities, political assassinations and bombings followed hot on one another’s heels. The region became a war zone. Arab intellectuals and state administrations adopted one aim in order to increase their political influence; to turn the Muslim people away from Islam and introduce artificial ideologies that coalesce around their leaders. 


 

How Did the Communist Intellectual System Gradually Seize Power in Arab Countries?

 - The administration phase: In the period between the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the World War II, the colonialist powers Great Britain and France established an intensely repressive system in Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Fascist Germany and Italy were busy repressing Muslims in such countries as Libya and Ethiopia. Enormous pressure was put on religious people in this period, while new generation intellectuals and state administrators were receiving a Darwinist education in Europe. The aim was to distance first the administrators in Arab countries and then the public from Islamic moral values, and thus to maintain the colonialist system. The communist and Darwinist education provided in Europe resulted in the appearance of a communist new generation and ideologies in the Muslim Arab world that were far removed from the moral values of Islam. 

- The military phase: Following the end of the World War II, which resulted in the economic collapse of the states of Europe, the cold war began, a struggle between two opposing axes, together with a communist movement among Arab countries. These movements uttered Arab nationalist slogans and also wished to establish a communist-socialist regime. Communist ideology found particular support among the upper echelons of the various militaries because Arab armies had also received Darwinist materialist training in Europe during the colonialist period and consisted of cadres who had been completely distanced from Islamic moral values. 

- The coup phase: The Arab socialist-communist movement seized power through a number of coups right up until the 1970s. Arab socialist eras dawned with Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, Colonel Gaddafi in Libya, in Iraq with first General Hassan al-Bakr and then Saddam Hussein and in Syria with the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party and Hafez al-Assad. Arab states were communized through these coups. The communist took the name of the Ba’ath Party in politics in Iraq and Syria, and throughout the decades of their rule, communist cadres were installed in the most crucial positions in the state, the army, the civil service and the education system. 

- The Beginning of Darwinist Communist Education in Arab Lands: During the cold war, communist regimes in Arab states drew closer to the Soviet Union. Soviet ideologues transferred the Darwinist, materialist and communist education that had formerly been provided in Europe to the Arab countries themselves. As a result of this 30 - 40 year period of education, countries emerged that had Muslim populations but in which all religious institutions had been eradicated, in which communist regimes based on violence had replaced the moral values of Islam. 


 

The Destructive Impact of the Darwinist Communist Intellectual System on the Arab People

From the second half of the 20th century, Muslim peoples were governed by Darwinist-communist regimes and organizations. In that period, Arab peoples in various countries were subjected to war, ethnic slaughter, terrorist activity or official persecution. Series of communist rebellions led to constant instability and impoverishment. The Muslim public became ever poorer, despite their countries’ huge oil revenues, while these made the ruling classes and their associates even wealthier. 

As with other communist regimes, Arab communism used all kinds of despotism to cling onto power and adopted a false mask of Arab nationalism. The climate of love, affection and compassion that had been enjoyed, by way of the moral values of Islam, in the Ottoman period, was replaced by the savagery, barbarity and despotism of communism. 

 

The Communist Leaders of the Arab World

 1. IRAQ - Saddam Hussein 

Saddam Hussein was a leading communist and Ba’ath Party militant. As a member of the party, he received a military education based on Darwinism and materialism. It assumed power in Iraq following an internal party coup. Following the Hassan al-Bakr coup, he served as deputy prime minister in the government and seized power himself in 1979 while head of the Revolutionary Command Council. The Ba’ath Party administration then accused 68 of its administrators of treason, and hanged 22 of them. There was now just one center of power in the country following this bloody party revolution. Saddam took a leaf out of the Darwinist Gamal Abdel Nasser’s book and described himself as a socialist revolutionary. He initiated the 8-year Iran-Iraq War in 1980. In 1991 he started the Gulf War by invading Kuwait. Both wars ended in the deaths of millions of Muslims. The attack on the town of Halabja in northern Iraq in which chemical weapons were used and in which tens of thousands of innocent Muslims were killed was just one of the crimes against humanity of Saddam’s regime. Saddam Hussein was also responsible for a massacre after the Gulf War in which tens of thousands of Shiites died. 

3. PALESTINE - George Habash

A Darwinist, Marxist-Leninist militant. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine founded by him acts in line with the communist ideology of the Palestine Liberation Organization, of which it is a subsidiary. He was responsible for many terrorist attacks and plane hijackings in the 1970s and ‘80s. He sparked the Palestine-Jordanian fighting known as Black September. He also made Lebanon a training ground for communist militants from all over the world. 

Palestine Liberation Organization

In the initial stage it was set up as a Marxist-Leninist structure. That meant it was for long regarded as a terrorist organization. It was a left-leaning organization largely kept alive by support from the Soviets and socialist Arab countries. 

In the same way, al Fatah, set up in 1959 under the leadership of Yasser Arafat was an organization that acted in the light of communist ideology and had a Darwinist-materialist nature. In 1968, al Fatah, which began being influential within the PLO, began preparing for terrorist activities by training guerrillas. The guerrilla group Black September split away from al Fatah in 1971 and in 1972, under the influence of Darwinist indoctrination, ruthlessly killed 11 athletes it had taken hostage at the Munich Olympics. 

The recent abandonment of Darwinist, Leninist thinking within both the PLO and al Fatah has led both organizations to work toward protecting the rights of innocent Muslims. 

4. SYRIA – Hafez Assad

He is the communist leader of the Syrian Ba’ath Party and received Darwinist-materialist education in the Soviet Union. Following his offices of Air Forces Commander and Minister of Defense, he seized power in 1970 by means of a coup in the party. Assad initiated a close alliance with the Soviet Union once he came to power and his rule gained immense support from the communist Russia. During his administration, he managed to hold power in his hand through methods of state terror. The oppressive management of Hafez Assad describing itself to be a “Socialist People’s Democracy” turned Syria into a country of autocracy (persecution and cruelty) in a short time. All political parties were closed and advocating ideas other than the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party’s socialist ideology was banned. All Islamic groups were put under constraint. The leaders of these movements were arrested and gave away their lives under ruthless torture. The reports of international human rights organizations bear witness to the severe persecution and violence on the Syrian Muslims at the time of Assad’s regime and how Muslim women were raped and men were ruthlessly tortured. On top of all these, Hafez Assad regime raided homes, attacked mosques, slandered and cursed against Muslims in an attempt to terrorize the Muslim community, which they have achieved to a great extent.

In the pretense of allegations based on some shady assassinations in 1982, the Intelligence Service of Syria started operations against Muslims and the Muslim Brotherhood Party. In these operations commenced with instructions by Hafez Assad, approximately 150,000 – 200,000 civilians were slaughtered. Various international communist terror organizations harbored in the country during the Hafez Assad regime and received logistic support. Abdullah Öcalan, leader of the PKK terror organization also acquired that sponsorship.

Hafez Assad and his brother Rifaat Assad massacred 40 thousand Muslims in the cities of Hama and Homs in Syria. Methods of terror such as “breaking into houses, abducting women and girls, confiscating belongings and goods, slaughtering father of the family into pieces before the eyes of their wives and children” were implemented in this massacre. (Hürriyet, 15th November 1984)

As a matter of fact, this so-called operation carried out by the Assad regime in February 1982 was not a novel occurrence. Two years ago houses were raided and raked in big cities such as Aleppo, Hama and Homs in Syria and people were mass murdered in various places. Rifaat Assad who was known with his brutality and villainy was saying the below during one of his bloodbaths:

“Shoot them with napalm bombs! I do not want to see a single house that is not on fire.” (Cumhuriyet, 6 March 1982)

“Following the massacre in Hama, Rifaat Assad was travelling over the ruined city and said, ‘We have made a population control at least for five years.’” (Hurriyet, 13 November 1984)

Structure of the Ba’ath Party

- The Ba’ath Party has established the communist political structure in Iraq and Syria. All academic, political, military and bureaucratic staff was recruited from within the fervent Stalinist party members. From the lowest – level organs to the high - ranking hierarchy, the Ba’ath Party is structured on organized cells, which is a Leninist style of organization. Members of difference cells do not know one another, and the insurgency in Iraq is based on this structure resembling a terror organization. By means of these organized cells, the Ba’ath Party applied fervent oppression on people as well as bureaucracy in both Syria and Iraq.

- The Ba’ath Party carried out a coup in Iraq in 1963 and seized power from Abdulkarim Qasim.  One year later, it came to rule Syria following another coup and Salah al-Bitar, another Darwinist and communist ideologue, came to rule the state.    

5. EGYPT - General Gamal Abdel Nasser 

He carried out a coup in 1952 in Egypt with 9 other officers under the name of the “Free Officers Committee,” overthrowing King Farouk and ruling the country for 20 years with a communist dictatorship based on violence. He was one of the revolutionary members of the Arab socialist movement. He developed a nationalist, Darwinist-Stalinist ideology known as Nasserism. The Free Officers Committee, of which he was a member, was a communist organization and enjoyed very close relations with the Communist Party, both before and after the revolution.[1]

The Nasser period was one of dictatorship and oppression. Through the intelligence organization he established, he eliminated the entire opposition, soon becoming a repressive tyrant.

Nasser was made uneasy by the popularity and strength of the Muslim Brotherhood, a large Muslim community whose support he enjoyed as he came to power, and seized a suitable time to close the organization down. He seized on a protect demonstration by students close to the organization in 1954 as a pretext. He had thousands of members of the organization detained, while revolutionary courts set up to punish the opposition sentenced the leading members of the Muslim brotherhood to death. All political parties were closed down with the coup, and the opening of new parties was prohibited. Pressure was brought to bear on the al-Azhar Islamic University during his time in power and on intellectuals emerging from it. In his time, al-Azhar was turned into a state university by means of taking over the curriculum. Private mosques were attached to the state, foundation lands were nationalized, and religious instruction was made all but impossible.[2] Egypt’s closest ally in Nasser’s time was Russia. The army, the economy, education, universities and the press all fell literally under Russian control. Following visits to Egypt by leaders such as Khrushchev, communist policies were stepped up still further. Communist Russia wanted Arab nationalism to assume a form suited to communist principles. Egypt assumed the role of influencing Arab countries in that direction.

In Nasser’s time, communist and Darwinist views came to dominate the curriculum. Egypt was full of Russian agents. A huge move in the direction of communism and communist statements issued by Nasser began from 1962 in particular. The name of the National Union was changed to the Arab Socialist Union. After a request from the Soviets, Nasser pardoned all the communist insurgents in prison and put the Egyptian press under these people’s control. [3]

Having passed under the control of communist Soviets, the Egyptian press for years waged a major campaign of aggression and slander against Islam, Islamic scholars and Islamic groups. Agricultural products were turned over to Soviet control in return for financial aid and large quantities of arms. Nasser was awarded the USSR’s highest medal of honor, the Hero of the Soviet Union medal, also given to communist leader Stalin, who savagely condemned millions to death. Nasser stood as the sole candidate in election in 1965, and stepped up his pressure on the Muslim Brotherhood even further after receiving 99% of the vote following a corrupt election held in an atmosphere of pressure and violence. Many Islamic scholars were arrested and executed. Thousands of Muslims were tortured and lost their lives. The Muslims detained during that time were only released from prison after Nasser’s death. Under Nasser’s communist tyranny, some fifty thousand members of the Muslim Brotherhood were tortured in the dungeons of the regime. His rule is compared to Mussolini’s Italy by many Muslim historians. In addition to the press, Nasser also installed communist and revolutionary cadres within the judicial system. Following criticism of the administration by the Egyptian Judges’ Club in 1969 – in a decision that would later come to be known as the slaughter of the law - hundreds of senior court members were removed from their posts by the Nasser regime and replaced by communists.

Nothing changed in Egypt after Nasser. The Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamic communities had always been very powerful in Egypt, and had always been subjected to immense repression. As of the 1970s, however, there was a great increase in Islamic consciousness in Egypt and a powerful Islamic resistance to Nasser developed. Anwar Sadat took over as president following the death of Nasser in 1970. Sadat initially adopted a more moderate line, reduced the influence of communist Russia in the country and adopted a pro-Western policy. Later on, however, he inflicted violence and oppression against Muslims, in the same way as Nasser. He brought in constitutional changes and made himself the sole ruler in country, again just like Nasser, by awarding himself wide-ranging powers. Sadat was killed in 1981, and was replaced by Hosni Mubarak. Eventually removed from power by an opposition coup, Mubarak surpassed even the other Egyptian leaders in his use of violence and repression. Mubarak turned the oppression of Muslims into state terror with the introduction of new laws, and maintained the repression of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamic communities through detentions, torture and unsolved killings.

6. TUNISIA – Habib Bourguiba

Habib Bourguiba was under French control right from childhood. He received a Darwinist education and studied law and politics at the Sorbonne. After returning to Tunisia, Bourguiba encouraged the people to revolt, thus establishing the conditions necessary for the French colonialists to eliminate Tunisian Muslims. After independence Bourguiba was made president of Tunisia, but suddenly changed and started following an anti-Islamic policy. 

He had Islamic educational institutions closed down, particularly University of Zaytuna, the symbol of Tunisia. He kept the mosques under surveillance and prohibited performance of the prayer outside certain specified hours. He had thousands of Muslims arrested and severely tortured in the prisons. Thousands of Muslims lost their lives in the time of Habib Bourguiba. 

7. YEMEN – Imam Ahmad bin Yahya

When South Yemen was administered by the British it was a moderate, pro-Western country. It then became a Soviet ally. North Yemen, on the other hand, remained in the hands of the Darwinist and materialist dictator Ahmad bin Yahya until 1962. He imposed heavy taxes on the tribes of the country, and kept a few prominent members of each one as hostages in the palace in order to keep the tribes under control or prevent any potential tribal revolts. He even took these people along on foreign visits.

THE PAHLAVI DYNASTY AIMED TO ESTABLISH A DARWINIST SOCIETY IN IRAN 

8. IRAN: The Pahlavi Dynasty

Reza Shah Pahlavi overthrew the Iranian Soviet Socialist republic, established in 1920 with support from the Bolsheviks, with the help of the British and of guerrillas who had been trained in Russia, and became commander in chief of the army. In 1925 he declared himself Shah and founded the Pahlavi dynasty. Muslims encountered severe pressure throughout the time of Reza Shah Pahlavi, who saw it as his main aim to protect British interests in Iran. Islamic education institutions were closed and Darwinist education imposed instead. Islamic clothing was banned and women were not allowed to cover their heads. The army was restructured by the Europeans. In the early 1960s, the USA replaced the British. Supported by the USA, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi assumed the throne. As Pahlavi’s pressure on Muslims increased, so did popular resistance. Pahlavi’s 65,000-member organization SAVAK [Iran’s security and intelligence secret police] perpetrated enormous slaughter. Protesting students were shot at. Thousands of people lost their lives. 

Conclusion:

BY ALLAH’S LEAVE, ISLAM WILL ENTER A GOLDEN AGE WITH THE TURKISH-ISLAMIC UNION

Muslim countries were not governed in the light of Islamic moral values in the 20th century. As can be seen from the examples cited throughout this text, their rulers were Darwinists, communists and totalitarians. Their military officers underwent communist training. In other words, even though they were Muslim, there was no difference between them and the Soviet Union or other Eastern Bloc countries. The reason why the region has remained backward is not Islam, as Darwinist, materialist circles have attempted to suggest for so many years, but the fact that due to this communist mindset people did not live according to the moral values of Islam.

The ruling class in the Arab world and the people in general have only just started to be freed from the influence of this Darwinist and communist education. Following the end of the Darwinist rule that lasted for the last 150 years and the refutation of all its claims, a huge re-awakening of faith has begun in the Arab world, as in the rest of the world. Adnan Oktar’s Atlas of Creation, the giant work that reveals the fraudulent nature and invalidity of Darwinism, thus neutralizing it, and his other works that have been downloaded millions of times, have made a major contribution to this. 

This awakening in the Islamic world, that began with the collapse of Darwinism and the Darwinist dictatorship in the 21st century, will, by Allah’s leave, result in the Turkish-Islamic Union. When the time ordained by Allah comes, Islamic moral values will rule the world and Islam will embark on the Golden Age, for so long awaited in the light of the hadiths of the Prophet (saas). 

When Allah’s help and victory have arrived and you have seen people entering Allah’s religion in droves, then glorify your Lord’s praise and ask His forgiveness. He is the Ever-Returning. (Surat an-Nasr, 1-3)

The Ideologues of Arab Communism
 

• Arab socialism was developed under the influence of such 19th century Darwinist and materialist philosophers as the German Johann Fichte and Auguste Comte of France. 

• Michel Aflaq, regarded as the founder of Arab communism, was Syrian. He received a Marxist education in France, followed by studies in the 1930s at the Sorbonne, the bastion of Darwinism and communism. The first constitution of the Ba’ath Party founded in Syria by Aflaq in 1943 was drafted by him, based on Marxist and anti-religious ideas. The word “religion” did not even appear in the constitution.[i] In 1953 the party merged with the Arab Socialist Movement, becoming the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party. The party was established on Darwinist, Marxist and socialist principles. It was later organized in all Arab countries, especially Lebanon, Jordan, South Yemen, Iraq and Libya. It operated secretly in some countries and openly in others. He served as minister of education in Syria. After Syria, Aflaq sought sanctuary in Iraq, being the one who found and raised Saddam Hussein in ideological terms, and who brought him to power. He was also a founder of the Iraq Ba’ath Party and one of the regime’s ideologues. He continued as deputy president of the Iraq Ba’ath Party until his death in 1989. After his death, Saddam Hussein announced him as a Muslim and had a tomb built for him. But the new Iraqi administration pulled the tomb down. 

• Ali Salih al-Sa’di was an Iraq Ba’ath Party ideologue and took the party down a communist, Stalinist path. 

• Zaki al-Arsuzi, a Syrian Ba’ath Party ideologue and founder, studied in the Department of Philosophy in the Sorbonne. Ideologues such as Sati’ al-Husri were also under the influence of the Nazi-German racism of the time. 

[i] Sosyal Bilimler Ansiklopedisi [Social Sciences Encyclopedia], Risale Publications: 1/111-112.

Statements by Mr. Adnan Oktar Regarding the Darwinist, Materialist Intellectual System That Took over in Arab Countries 


“In time they extended their tentacles into all Islamic countries, like an octopus. [For example,] Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt. Egypt came under the control of communists. Iraq fell into the hands of Stalinists, thanks to Saddam. Syria was also in Stalinist hands through Hafez al-Assad. Yemen also fell into communist hands. Palestine was already a school for communists, it was the communists’ training camp. They spread Darwinism to the whole Islamic world. That is what the tradition says: Seventy thousand turbaned religious scholars will follow the Dajjal [the Antichrist]. In other words, they will be communists, Darwinists and materialists, and will cunningly lead Muslims toward lack of religion and lack of faith. That is what the hadith implies. This also implies communist religious scholars.” (From a live interview with Adnan Oktar on 22 March, 2009, for Kanal 67)

 
”SEVENTY THOUSAND SCHOLARS WITH TURBANS FROM MY COMMUNITY WILL FOLLOW THE DAJJAL.” 
(Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, p. 796)

 

1 Robert M. Young, Darwinian Evolution and Human History, Historical Studies on Science and Belief, 1980

2 Alan Woods and Ted Grant, "Marxism and Darwinism", Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London, 1993

3 Alex de Jonge, Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union, William Collins Sons & Limited Co., Glasgow, 1987, p. 22

4 Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977


[1] http://www.marksist.com/ilkay_meric/nasirdan_chaveze_bonapartizm_cesitlemeleri.htm

[2] http://misir.ihh.org.tr/insan/insan.html

[3] http://www.akintarih.com/yazilar/milletvezaman.htm

 

2009-04-05 08:42:07

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